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Yamaha Corporation
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Yamaha Corporation

October 12, 1897
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan
Musical instruments, Audio/Video, Electronics, Computer related products, Motorbikes, Personal water craft
4.4 billion US$ (2003)
Operating income
267 million US$ (2003)
Net income
149 million US$ (2003)
23,500 (3/2003)

headquarters of Yamaha Corporation
“Yamaha” redirects here. For other uses, see Yamaha (disambiguation).
The Yamaha Corporation (ヤマハ株式会社, Yamaha Kabushiki Gaisha?) (TYO: 7951 ) is a Japanese company with a wide range of products and services, predominantly musical instruments and electronic products.
It was founded in 1887 as a piano and reed organ manufacturer by Torakusu Yamaha as Nippon Gakki Company, Limited (日本楽器製造株式会社, Nippon Gakki Seizō Kabushiki Gaisha?) in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka prefecture, and incorporated on October 12, 1897. The company's origins as a musical instrument manufacturer is still reflected today in the group's logo — a trio of interlocking tuning forks.[1].
After WWII, company president Gen-ichi Kawakami, repurposed the remains of the company's war-time production machinery and the company's expertise in metallurgical technologies to the manufacture of motorcycles. The YA-1 (aka Akatombo, the "Red Dragonfly"), of which 125 were built in the first year of production (1954), was named in honor of the founder. It was a 125cc, single cylinder, two-stroke, streetbike patterned after the German DKW RT125 (which the British munitions firm, BSA, had also copied in the post-war era and manufactured as the Bantam, and Harley-Davidson as the Hummer). In 1955, the success of the YA-1 resulted in the founding of the Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.
Yamaha has grown to become the world's largest manufacturer of musical instruments (including "silent" pianos, drums, guitars, violins, violas and celli), as well as a leading manufacturer of semiconductors (begun in 1971), audio/visual and other computer related products, sporting goods, home appliances and furniture, specialty metals, machine tools, and industrial robots.
In October 1987, on the 100th anniversary, its name was changed to THE YAMAHA CORPORATION.
In 1989, Yamaha shipped the world's first CD recorder. Since then, Yamaha has purchased Sequential Circuits in 1988 and bought a significant share of competitor Korg in 19891993. It also acquired German Audio Software manufacturers Steinberg in 2004, from Pinnacle.
Yamaha Corporation is also widely known for their music program during the mid 1980s, and was compared to Shin'ichi Suzuki's method in a sense.
Other companies in the Yamaha group include:
Yamaha Motor Company
Yamaha Fine Technologies Co., Ltd.
Yamaha Livingtec Corporation
Yamaha Metanix Corporation
1 Products
1.1 Acoustic musical instruments
1.2 Electric musical instruments
1.3 Electronic musical instruments
1.4 Professional audio
1.5 Home electronics
1.6 Software synthesizers
1.7 Sound chips
2 See also
3 External links

[edit] Products

[edit] Acoustic musical instruments
Upright pianos M1 M450 M475 M500 P22 P600 T116 T121
U3 U5
Grand pianos
Player pianos
F-310 (Steel string acoustic)
Pacifica (Electric)
Percussion instruments
drum kits
String instruments
Brass instruments
Soprano saxophones
Alto saxophones
Tenor saxophones
Baritone Saxophones

[edit] Electric musical instruments
Electric guitars
AE Series
EG112 BL
PAC Series
RGX Series
Bass guitars
RBX Series
TRB Series
BB Series

[edit] Electronic musical instruments
Digital pianos
Clavinova CVP Series
YPG series
Yamaha PSR-185
Digital stage pianos
Yamaha P-250
Electone electronic organs
ELB-01 Mini
Portable Keyboards
Yamaha PortaTone (PSS) Series
PortaSound (PSR) series
Yamaha PC-50
Yamaha PSR-185
Yamaha PSR-9000
Yamaha PSR-9000 Pro
Yamaha PSR-S500
Yamaha PSR-S700
Yamaha PSR-S900
Yamaha PSR-3000
Yamaha Tyros
Yamaha Tyros 2
Yamaha DGX-200 series
Yamaha DGX-300 series
Yamaha DGX-500 series
Yamaha DJ-X Series
Music workstations
Yamaha SY77
Yamaha SY99
Yamaha SY85
Yamaha EX5
Yamaha QS 300
Motif ES
Motif XS
Yamaha MO
Yamaha AN1x
Yamaha CS-1x
Yamaha CS-2x
Yamaha CS-6x
Yamaha CS-01
Yamaha CS-10
Yamaha CS-15
Yamaha CS-20m
Yamaha CS-30/CS-30L
Yamaha CS-40m
Yamaha CS-5
Yamaha CS-50
Yamaha CS-60
Yamaha CS-70m
Yamaha CS-80
Yamaha DX7
Yamaha DX11
Yamaha FS1R
Yamaha GX1
Yamaha RM1x
Yamaha S90
Yamaha S90 ES
Yamaha SHS-10
Yamaha VL1
Tone generators
Yamaha MU-series
Yamaha TG77
Yamaha TX81Z
Yamaha VL70m
Music sequencers
Yamaha QY10
Yamaha QY100
Yamaha QY700

[edit] Professional audio
Analog and digital mixing consoles
Digital audio workstations
Digital mixing engines
Public address loudspeakers
Power amplifiers
Audio signal processing
Studio monitor loudspeakers

[edit] Home electronics
Yamaha DSP-1 - An early home theater surround sound component produced in 1985
Home stereo components
28 Series components (produced in the 1980s)
Natural Sound loudspeaker line
NS-A100 floorstanding speakers (produced in the 1980s)
Music disc recorders
Yamaha MDR-1
Yamaha MDR-10

[edit] Software synthesizers

[edit] Sound chips
Yamaha YM2149, used in the Atari ST, MSX, Intellivision computers
Yamaha Y8950, used in MSX-Audio cardridge for MSX, made by Philips
Yamaha YM2413 (a.k.a. OPLL), used in MSX in MSX Music cardridges like the FM-PAC
Yamaha YM2151 (a.k.a. OPM), used in X68000
Yamaha YM2203 (a.k.a. OPN), used in PC88 and PC98
Yamaha YM2608 (a.k.a. OPNA), used in PC88 and PC98
Yamaha YM3526 (a.k.a. OPL)
Yamaha YM3812 (a.k.a. OPL2), used in AdLib and early Sound Blaster sound cards
Yamaha YMF262 (a.k.a. OPL3), used in Sound Blaster Pro 2.0 and later cards
Yamaha YMF278 (a.k.a. OPL4), used in Moonsound cartridge for MSX
Yamaha YM2612 (a.k.a. OPN2), used in Sega Mega Drive (Sega Genesis)
Yamaha YMF7xx (Embedded audio chipset in some laptops and low-end soundcards)
Yamaha YMU786 (a.k.a. MA-7), used in mobile phones to process various audio sources; sound effect, 3D audio effect, sound mixer, ringtone generation, etc.
SCSP Sega Saturn Custom Sound Processor used in SEGA Saturn and Sega Titan Video (ST-V) arcade hardware
Yamaha Super Intelligent Sound Processor (AICA) for Dreamcast and Naomi
Yamaha developed their own set of improvements to the General MIDI standard and called it XG. Many of their current range of products, from their high-end synths to "toy" keyboards, support the XG standard.
Yamaha is also known for the Yamaha Music Education System, a renowned system for teaching musical skills to children between the ages of 3 and 9.

[edit] See also
High end audio
AV Receivers
All-Japan Band Association - Yamaha has long been a major sponsor of this event.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation).
Suzuki Motor Corporation

Public (TYO: 7269 )
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan
Key people
Osamu Suzuki, Chairman & CEOHiroshi Tsuda, President & COO
Auto-Cars/Light Trucks
Automobiles, Motorcycles, Outboard Motors, and Other Products
¥2,365,571 million Japanese Yen (2005)
13,760 (2005)
Way Of Life!
Suzuki Motor Corporation (スズキ株式会社, Suzuki Kabushikigaisha?) is a Japanese multinational corporation company producing a range of automobiles (especially Keicars), a full range of motorcycles, outboard motors, and a variety of other small combustion-powered engine products. Suzuki has 15 automotive manufacturing plants in 14 countries and 133 distributors in 119 countries.
1 History
1.1 Historical Timeline
2 American Suzuki Motor Corp. History
3 Suzuki Canada Inc. History
4 OEM deals
5 Automobiles
5.1 Kei Automobiles
6 Motorcycles
6.1 Street
6.2 Motocross / Off Road
6.3 Concept/prototype
6.4 All-terrain vehicles (ATVs)
6.5 ltr 450
7 Trivia
8 External links

[edit] History
In 1909, Michio Suzuki founded the Suzuki Loom Company in the small seacoast village of Hamamatsu, Japan. Business boomed as Suzuki built weaving looms for Japan's giant silk industry. Suzuki's only desire was to build better, more user-friendly looms. In 1929, Michio Suzuki invented a new type of weaving machine, which was exported overseas. Suzuki filed as many as 120 patents and utility model rights. For the first 30 years of the company's existence, its focus was on the development and production of these exceptionally complex machines.
Despite the success of his looms, Suzuki realized his company had to diversify and he began to look at other products. Based on consumer demand, he decided that building a small car would be the most practical new venture. The project began in 1937, and within two years Suzuki had completed several compact prototype cars. These first Suzuki motor vehicles were powered by a then-innovative, liquid-cooled, four-stroke, four-cylinder engine. It featured a cast aluminum crankcase and gearbox and generated 13 horsepower from a displacement of less than 800cc.
With the onset of World War II, production plans for Suzuki's new vehicles were halted when the government declared civilian passenger cars a "non-essential commodity." At the conclusion of the war, Suzuki went back to producing looms. Loom production was given a boost when the U.S. government approved the shipping of cotton to Japan. Suzuki's fortunes brightened as orders began to increase from domestic textile manufacturers. But the joy was short-lived as the cotton market collapsed in 1951.
Faced with this colossal challenge, Suzuki's thoughts went back to motor vehicles. After the war, the Japanese had a great need for affordable, reliable personal transportation. A number of firms began offering "clip-on" gas-powered engines that could be attached to the typical bicycle. Suzuki's first two-wheel effort came in the form of a motorized bicycle called, the "Power Free." Designed to be inexpensive and simple to build and maintain, the 1952 Power Free featured a 36cc two-stroke engine. An unprecedented feature was the double-sprocket gear system, enabling the rider to either pedal with the engine assisting, pedal without engine assist, or simply disconnect the pedals and run on engine power alone. The system was so ingenious that the patent office of the new democratic government granted Suzuki a financial subsidy to continue research in motorcycle engineering. And so was born Suzuki Motor Corporation.
In 1953, Suzuki scored the first of countless racing victories when the tiny 60cc "Diamond Free" won its class in the Mount Fuji Hill Climb.

By 1954, Suzuki was producing 6,000 motorcycles per month and had officially changed its name to Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd. Following the success of its first motorcycles, Suzuki created an even more successful automobile: the 1955 Suzulight. Suzuki showcased its penchant for innovation from the beginning. The Suzulight included front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension and rack-and-pinion steering -- features common on cars half a century later.

[edit] Historical Timeline
1910 - Suzuki Loom Works founded in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, by Michio Suzuki.
1920 - Reorganized, incorporated, and capitalized at 500,000 yen as Suzuki Loom Manufacturing Co. with Michio Suzuki as president.
1952 - 'Power Free' motorized bicycle marketed.
1954 - Company name changed to Suzuki Motor Co.,Ltd.
1955 - Lightweight car 'Suzulight' (360cc, 2-stroke) marketed helping to usher in Japan's light-weight car age.
1961 - Suzuki Loom Manufacturing Co. established by separating the loom machine division from the motor works and lightweight truck 'Suzulight Carry' marketed.
1962 - Suzuki won the 50cc class championship at the Isle of Man (U.K.)
1963 - U.S. Suzuki Motor Corp., a direct sales subsidiary, opened in Los Angeles.
1965 - 'D55' (5.5hp, 2-stroke) outboard motor marketed and makes early inroads and Fronte 800 marketed.
1967 - Thai Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd. established as a local assembly plant.
1968 - Carry full-cab van marketed.
1970 - LJ-Series 4X4 marketed.
1971 - GT750 motorcycle marketed.
1973 - Suzuki Canada Ltd., opened in Ontario, Canada.
1974 - P.T. Suzuki Indonesia Manufacturing established in Jakarta, Indonesia, entry into medical equipment field by marketing the Suzuki Motor Chair Z600 motorized wheelchair, expansion into the housing field initiated with Suzuki Home marketing two models of prefab 'Mini-House' and three types of storage sheds.
1975 - Antonio Suzuki Corp., a joint venture for knockdown production and sales, established in Manila, the Philippines.
1976 - GS-Series motorcycles marketed.
1977 - LJ80 4x4 vehicle marketed and exports of GS1000H motorcycle began.
1979 - Alto marketed.
1979 - SC100 marketed in the UK.
1980 - Suzuki Australia Pty. Ltd. established in Sydney, Australia and entry into general purpose engine field by marketing three electric power generator models.
1981 - Business ties with General Motors (U.S.) and Isuzu Motors, Ltd.(Japan) signed.
1982 - 4X4 production began at PAK Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd. in Karachi, Pakistan and won maker championship for 7th consecutive year at the World Road Race Grand Prix 500.
1982 - SC100 Discontinued in favour of Alto.
1983 - Cultus/Swift 1.0-liter passenger car marketed and 4X4 production started at Maruti Udyog Ltd. in New Delhi, India.
1984 - Suzuki New Zealand Ltd. established in Wanganui, New Zealand and began export of Chevrolet Sprint to the United States. Car production technical assistance contract signed with China National Aerotechnology Import & Export Beijing Corporation. Operation of Suzuki Motor GmbH Deutschland began in Heppenheim,Germany.
1985 - SUZUKI of AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE CORP. established with the introduction of the Samurai, GSX-R750 motorcycle with an oil-cooled engine marketed and scooter production started at Avello S.A. of Spain. Agreement with Santana Motors to to produce Suzuki cars in their Linares factory in Andalusia, Spain.
1986 - American Suzuki Motor Corp. is formed merging U.S. Suzuki Motor Corp and Suzuki of America Automotive Corp.
1987 - Cultus/Swift production began in Colombia and total aggregate car exports reached 2 million units.
1988 - Escudo/Vitara 4x4 marketed and total aggregate car production reached 10 million units..
1989 - CAMI Automotive Inc. established and began operation in Ontario, Canada. Swift GT and Sidekick sales begin in the United States.
1990 - Corporate name changed to Suzuki Motor Corporation.
1991 - Car production started in Korea through technical ties with Daewoo Shipbuilding & Heavy Machinery Ltd and Cappuccino 2-seater marketed.
1993 - Passenger car production/sales began at Suzuki Egypt S.A.E., opening ceremony for new car production plant held at Magyar Suzuki Corp. in Esztergom, Hungary and Wagon R passenger car marketed.
1994 - Maruti Udyog Ltd. of India total aggregate car production reached 1 million units.
1995 - Total aggregate motorcycle export reached 20 million units
1996 - Start of production in Vietnam (Motorcycles and automobiles)
1997 - Achieved 10 million cumulative automobile sales for overseas market and 4-stroke outboard motors win the Innovation Award at The International Marine Trade Exhibit and Conference (IMTEC) in Chicago.
1998 - Suzuki and General Motors form strategic alliance and Chongqing Changan Suzuki Automobile Co., Ltd. received official approval from the Chinese government for production of passenger cars.
1999 - Aggregate motorcycle production reaches 40 million units and Jiangxi Changhe Suzuki Automobile Co., Ltd. receives official approval from the Chinese government for production of commercial vehicles.
2000 - The company commemorates the 80th anniversary, aggregate car production at Kosai Plant reaches 10 million units and Suzuki production starts at General Motors de Argentina S.A.
2001 - Aggregate worldwide sales of SJ-Series reaches 2 million units, production of Alto reaches 4 million units and Suzuki achieves "Zero-Level" target of landfill waste
2002 - Achieved 30 million cumulative automobile sales for worldwide market and America's #1 warranty: 100,000/7-year powertrain limited warranty.
2003 - Suzuki is #1 in Keicar sales for the 30th consecutive year and Twin, the first hybrid Keicar in Japan, marketed.
2004 - Aggregate domestic automobile sales reach 15 million units
2005 - Swift was awarded the 2006 RJC Car of the Year.
2006 - New XL7 is marketed particularly to the North American market and GM divested, selling 92.36 million shares and reducing their stake to 3%.

[edit] American Suzuki Motor Corp. History
American Suzuki headquarters is located in Brea, California. Through an agreement with General Motors, Suzuki began selling a version of their Suzuki Cultus in United States as the Chevrolet Sprint in 1985. This model was initially sold as a 3-door hatchback and would be Chevrolet's smallest model.

2004 Suzuki XL-7
The Samurai was also introduced in 1985 for the 1986 model year and was the first car introduced to the United States by the newly created American Suzuki Corp. No other Japanese company sold more cars in the United States in its first year than Suzuki. The Samurai was available as a convertible or hardtop and the company slogan was Never a Dull Moment. The Samurai was successful until Consumer Reports reportedly forced the Samurai to roll over in a 1988 test.
In 1989, American Suzuki introduced the Swift which was the 2nd generation Suzuki Cultus. The Swift was available as a GTi and GLX hatchback with a 4-door sedan following in 1990. A new small SUV called the Sidekick was also introduced in 1989. 1991 saw the introduction of the 4-door Suzuki Sidekick, the first 4-door mini-SUV in North America. The Swift and Sidekick were cousins to GM's Geo Metro and Geo Tracker and were mostly produced in Ingersoll, Canada by Suzuki and GM's joint venture, CAMI. The Swift GT/GTi and 4-door models were imported from japan. Bad publicity from Consumer Reports and the Samurai nearly led to the demise of American Suzuki as annual sales in the following years dropped below 20,000 units.
In 1995, American Suzuki introduced the Esteem and redesigned the Swift. The Swift GT was dropped and this version Swift was specific only to North America where it was built at CAMI. These models were the first Suzukis to be marketed in North America with dual front airbags. A stationwagon version of the Esteem was introduced in 1996. Worldwide Suzuki production reached more than 975,000 cars this year.
Also in 1996, American Suzuki released the 2-door SUV X-90 and a revised Sidekick Sport model with dual airbags, a 120hp 1.8-liter engine, 16" wheels and two-tone paint. The Sidekick was replaced by the Vitara and the Grand Vitara for 1999. The Grand Vitara would be Suzuki's first model with a V6-cylinder engine and available 4-wheel ABS brakes.
The Grand Vitara XL-7 was introduced in 2001 as a stretched version of the Grand Vitara. The Grand Vitara XL-7 had a larger 2.7 liter V6-cylinder engine and 3-row seating. This would be Suzuki's largest vehicle to date and the first compact SUV to offer 3-row seating.
The Swift was dropped from the model lineup in 2001 and the Esteem was replaced in 2002 by the new Aerio. The Aerio was offered as a 4-door sedan and 5-door crossover with 4-wheel-drive as an option.
In 2004, General Motors and Suzuki jointly purchased the bankrupt Daewoo Motors renaming the venture GMDAT. American Suzuki rebadged the compact Daewoo Nubira/Daewoo Lacetti as the Forenza and the mid-size Daewoo Magnus as the Verona. The Forenza gained stationwagon and hatchback body style in 2005, with the hatchback sold under the Reno name.
2006 was the first year American Suzuki sold more than 100,000 vehicles in the United States. Suzuki redesigned the Grand Vitara in 2006 as well as introduced the all-new Suzuki SX4 and Suzuki XL7 in 2007. The Suzuki SX4 is produced as a joint venture with Fiat and the Suzuki XL7 (notice the shortening of the name from Grand Vitara XL-7) is produced as a joint venture with General Motors in Ingersoll, Canada.

[edit] Suzuki Canada Inc. History
1973 - June 1, Suzuki Canada Ltd. is incorporated with offices in Downsview, Ontario. Sold product line includes motorcycles, parts and accessories to Suzuki dealers throughout Canada.
1974 - Vancouver branch office and warehouse opens to service dealers in western Canada.
1980 - Autumn - Suzuki Canada begins its automotive sales by marketing the four-wheel-LJ80 in eastern Canada. Nov 1, the name of company changes from Suzuki Canada Ltd. to Suzuki Canada Inc.
1982 - Introduction of a line of all-terrain vehicles in Canada.
1983 - Introduction of a line of outboard motors in western Canada. Feb 1, 1983 - Western Branch moves to enlarged facilities in Richmond, British Columbia.
1984 - Begin selling the 'Suzuki Forsa' (Suzuki Cultus) automobile.
1986 - $600 million GM-Suzuki joint venture, CAMI Automotive Inc., announces that it will manufacture cars. Production set to begin in 1989 in Ingersoll, Ontario.
1987 - Jan 25 - Suzuki Canada Inc. moves into a new 110,000 sq. ft. head office and warehouse facility in Richmond Hill, Ontario.
1988 - Autumn - Suzuki begins to sell Canadian-built 2-door Suzuki Sidekick.

[edit] OEM deals
Beginning in 1985, Suzuki has built cars for or been the basis of other manufacturers around the globe.
General Motors - The Suzuki Cultus/Suzuki Swift was rebadged as the Chevrolet Sprint and in Canada the Pontiac Firefly. The Suzuki Ignis has been rebadged as the Chevrolet Cruze and Holden Cruze in Japan and Australia. The Suzuki Carry has been rebadged as the Bedford Rascal and Vauxhall Rascal in the United Kingdom, Holden Scurry in Australia and Chevrolet Supercarry in Ecuador. The Suzuki Vitara has been rebadged as the Geo Tracker, Chevrolet Tracker. the Suzuki XL7 has been rebadged in South America as the Chevrolet Grand Nomad. The Suzuki SJ-Series has been rebadged as the Holden Drover.
Subaru - In Europe, the second generation Suzuki Swift and the Suzuki Ignis were rebadged as the Subaru Justy.
Mazda - Most of Mazda's Autozam keicar models are rebadged Suzukis. The Suzuki Vitara was also sold as the Mazda Proceed.
Nissan - Nissan Moco is a rebadged Suzuki MR Wagon. Suzuki has recently collaborated more with Nissan, as they will supply Suzuki with a mid-sized pickup where Suzuki will provide Nissan with more minicars for the Japanese home market.
Maruti Udyog - Suzuki and India jointly own this company and all models are rebadged Suzuki. (www.marutiudyog.com)
Chang'an Automotive Corp (www.changansuzuki.com) - Suzuki Swift, Suzuki Alto, Suzuki Carry
Jiangxi Changhe (www.changhe-suzuki.com)

[edit] Automobiles
Baleno/Suzuki Esteem/Cultus Crescent
Grand Vitara
Jimny/Jimny Sierra
North/South American models

[edit] Kei Automobiles
Alto/Alto Works
Cervo/Cervo Mode/SC100/Whizzkid
Kei/Kei Works
Lapin/Lapin SS
MR Wagon
Suzuki Twin
Wagon R

[edit] Motorcycles

2002 Suzuki FXR150
Suzuki started manufacturing motorcycles in 1952, the first models being motorized bicycles. During the 1950s, 1960s and the better part of the 1970s, the company manufactured motorcycles with two-stroke engines only, the biggest two-stroke model being the water-cooled triple-cylinder GT750. A large factor in Suzuki's success in two- stroke competition was the East German Grand Prix racer Ernst Degner, who defected to the West in 1961, bringing with him expertise in two- stroke engines from the East German manufacturer MZ. Suzuki hired Degner, and he won the 50cc World Championship for them in 1962.
However, it wasn't until 1976 when Suzuki introduced its first motorcycle with a four-stroke engine, the GS400 and GS750. Since then, Suzuki has established a reputation as a manufacturer of well- engineered sport motorcycles.
In 1994, Suzuki partnered with Nanjing Jincheng Machinery to create a Chinese motorcycle manufacturer and exporter called Jincheng Suzuki.

[edit] Street
T20 / X6
GT Series
GS Series
GSX Series
GSX-R Series
RF Series
GSX-F / Katana Series
GSF / Bandit Series
VL 1500 Intruder LC / Boulevard C90
VZ 800 Marauder / Boulevard M50
VL 800 Volusia / Boulevard C50
VX 800
RG250 Gamma
GSX1100S-SZ, GSX750S-SF & GSX650 Katana
DL 1000 V-Strom
DL 650 V-Strom
GSX-1300R Hayabusa
Boulevard S40
Boulevard S50
Boulevard S83
EN 125cc 2a
LS650 Savage
Suzuki VS 600/750/1400 Intruder
Suzuki GV1400 Cavalcade (85-90)
Suzuki GV700/GV1200 Madura (85,86 only)
Suzuki RV 125 Van Van
Suzuki FR80 - Scooter
AN Burgman Series - Scooters
Katana AY50 - Scooter
Suzuki GN Series

[edit] Motocross / Off Road
RM Series - Two stroke
RM-Z Series - Four stroke
DR Series - Four stroke
DR-Z Series - Four stroke

[edit] Concept/prototype
Suzuki Stratosphere
Suzuki Skywave Type-S
Suzuki Boulevard M109R
Suzuki Address V50G
Suzuki GSX-R/4

[edit] All-terrain vehicles (ATVs)

A 2004 Suzuki LT-Z400 with some common and custom modifications done
Suzuki KingQuad 700
Suzuki TwinPeaks 700
Suzuki Vinson 500
Suzuki Eiger 400
Suzuki Ozark 250
Suzuki LT-Z250
Suzuki LT-Z400
Suzuki LT-R450 (race ready)
Suzuki Escudo Pikes Peak version (rally/road)
Suzuki Cultus Pikes Peak version (rally/road)

[edit] ltr 450
List of Suzuki engines
EDE51V village ambulance

[edit] Trivia
For Suzuki's American advertising as of July 2006, an edited version of The Mooney Suzuki's song "Alive and Amplified" appears on all American Suzuki commercials, despite the fact that the band was not named after the car.
Suzuki has created the motorcycles for every Kamen Rider series to date.
Suzuki also created the motorcycles for Uchuu Keiji Gavan, Uchuu Keiji Shaider, Choudenshi Bioman, and a whole host of other sentai and tokusatsu, notably from Toei. Suzuki is also a bike supplier to Toei.
In the cult Japanese anime Boogiepop Phantom, Nagi Kirima rides a Suzuki GSX250S Katana regularly; whether she's tearing up the city's unusually empty highways to vent frustration or speeding towards impending danger.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Anniversary badge on a 2003 Harley-Davidson
Harley-Davidson Motor Company

Public company
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Key people
James L. Ziemer, CEOThomas E. Bergmann, CFOJames A. McCaslin, Div. President & Div. COODonna F. Zarcone, Div. President & Div. COO
recreational vehicles
US-$ 5,015 million (2004)
9,000 (2004)
The Harley-Davidson, Inc. (NYSE: HOG) is an American manufacturer of motorcycles based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States. It is one of the two remaining American mass-producers of motorcycles (along with Victory). The company emphasizes heavy bikes designed for cruising on the highway and known for their distinctive exhaust note.
Harley-Davidson motorcycles (popularly known as "Harleys") are distinctive in both design and sound. Harley-Davidson motorcycles attract a loyal following (in marketing terms, the owners form a brand community).
The Motor Company supplies many domestic police forces with their motorcycle fleets. Harleys are especially noted for the tradition of heavy customization that gave rise to the chopper-style of motorcycle. It also licenses its logo, which is a profitable side business ($ 41 million of revenue in 2004, or almost 5 % of net income).
Since 1998 the Buell Motorcycle Company is a 98 % subsidiary of Harley-Davidson.
1 The Harley-Davidson engines
1.1 The Big V-Twins
1.2 The Small V-Twins
1.3 The Revolution engine
1.4 Timeline
2 Model designations
2.1 Current model designations
3 Model families
3.1 Touring
3.2 Softail
3.3 Dyna
3.4 Sportster
3.5 VRSC
4 History
4.1 The beginning
4.2 World War I
4.3 The 1920s
4.4 The Depression
4.5 World War II
4.6 Tarnished reputation
4.7 Leadership regained
4.8 Claims of stock price manipulation
4.9 2007 workers' strike
5 Events
6 Origin of Hog nickname
7 The Harley-Davidson Riders Club of Gt Britain & H.O.G.
8 Harley-Davidson in popular culture
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

[edit] The Harley-Davidson engines

V-twin in a HD Road King
The classic Harley-Davidson engines are two-cylinder, V-twin engines with the pistons mounted in a 45° "V". The crankshaft has a single pin, and both pistons are connected to this pin through their connecting rods.
This design causes the pistons to fire at uneven intervals, the consequence of an engineering tradeoff: To simplify the engine and reduce costs, the V-twin ignition was designed to operate with a single set of points and no distributor. Consequently, the spark plugs in the two cylinders fired simultaneously. One fires at the end of the compression stroke, initiating the power stroke, while the other spark plug fired during the exhaust stroke while the exhaust valve was still open. The 45° geometry allows this to happen. With the advent of electronic ignition, this design choice is entirely vestigal from an engineering standpoint, but has been sustained because of the strong connection between the distinctive sound and the Harley-Davidson brand. This design, which is covered under several United States patents, gives the Harley-Davidson V-twin its unique choppy "potato-potato" sound.
After the implementation of electronic ignition on the V-twin engine, the plugs were made to fire individually as follows:
the first piston fires (this is the 0° position)
the other piston fires at 315° into the stroke
there is a 405° gap (as both cylinders go through their exhaust stroke) until the first piston fires again
On 1 February 1994, the company filed a trademark application for the distinctive sound of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle engine: "The mark consists of the exhaust sound of applicant's motorcycles, produced by V-twin, common crankpin motorcycle engines when the goods are in use". Nine of Harley-Davidson's competitors filed comments opposing the application, arguing that cruiser-style motorcycles of various brands use a single-crankpin V-twin engine which produce a similar sound. Interestingly, when Honda first began making a motorcycle with a 45° V-2 design, the Honda Shadow, it used a more advanced engineering approach with an offset crank design which allows for even firing pulses and higher horsepower because of the reduced vibrational stresses on the engine. However, because potential buyers complained that the Shadow did not 'sound like a Harley,' Honda in 1996 introduced the Shadow American Classic Edition (or ACE) which had a single crank-pin design, reduced horsepower and a much more Harley-like sound.
These objections were followed by litigation. After six years, Harley-Davidson withdrew their trademark application.

[edit] The Big V-Twins

Electra Glide "Ultra Classic" in Bristol
F-head, also known as JD, pocket valve and IOE (intake over exhaust), 1914-29 (1,000 ccm), and 1922-29 (1,200 ccm)
Flathead, 1930-1948 (1,200 ccm) and 1935-41 (1,300 ccm).
Knucklehead, 1936-47 61 cubic inches (1,000 ccm), and 1941-47 74 cubic inches (1,200 ccm)
Panhead, 1948-52 61 cubic inches (1,000 ccm), and 1948-65, 74 cubic inches (1,200 ccm)
Shovelhead, 1966-85, 74 cubic inches (1,200 ccm) and 82 cubic inches (1,345 ccm) since late 1978
Evolution (aka "Evo" and "Blockhead"), 1984-99, 82 cubic inches (1,345 ccm)
Twin Cam 88 (aka "Fathead") 1999-present, 88 cubic inches (1,443 ccm)
Twin Cam 88B (counter balanced version of the Twin Cam 88) 2000-2006, 88 cubic inches (1,443 ccm)
Twin Cam 96, 2006-present, 96 cubic inches (1,584 ccm)
All Big Twins are air-cooled 45-degree V-Twins.

Evolution Sportster cruising around downtown Buenos Aires

[edit] The Small V-Twins
D Model, 1929-31, 750 cc
R Model, 1932-36, 750 cc
W Model, 1937-52, 750 cc, solo (2 wheel) frame only)
G (Servi-Car) Model, 1932-73, 750 cc
K Model, 1952-53, 750 cc
KH Model, 1954-56, 900 cc
Ironhead, 1957-1970 (900 cc), 1971-85 (1000 cc)
Evolution, 1986-present, 883, 1,100 and 1,200 cc
All Sportster engines are air-cooled 45-degree V-Twins.

V-Rod on the show room floor.

[edit] The Revolution engine
Revolution, Jointly designed and developed with Porsche in Germany and based on the VR1000 Harley-Davidson Super Bike engine, 2002-present, 69 cubic inches (1,131 cc), 60 degree V-twin, liquid cooled.
Used in VRSC (V-Twin Racing Street Custom) models. At first it was used in a single model called V-Rod. By 2006, the line had been expanded to five consumer model V-Rods, including the standard V-Rod, the "roadster-styled" Street Rod, the long and low Night Rod, and the VRSCSE² Screamin’ Eagle V-Rod with 1,250 cc big bore kit. 2007 saw the addition of further models like the VRSCDX "Night Rod Special" and the VRSCA being replaced by the VRSCAW with a 240 wide rear tire (up from the 180 rear tire on the "A")
There is also a non-street variant: the VRXSE Destroyer. The Screamin’ Eagle V-Rod Destroyer is a 165+hp, professional-level drag racing motorcycle designed exclusively for competition by Harley-Davidson Custom Vehicle Operations; it comes stock with larger 79 cui engine, air shifter and wheelie bar, among other features. The Destroyer is tuned to make sub 10-second quarter mile runs in the hands of an experienced rider.

[edit] Timeline
Main article: Harley-Davidson engine timeline

[edit] Model designations
Harley model designations are a sequence of letters and numbers, combined in limited ways. The sequences can be long, as in the 2006 model designation FLHTCUSE.
The first letter may be one of the following:
E, J, K ('50s small twin), F, U, V (Big Twin), D, G, R, W (Small Twin), X (Sportster), or V (VRSC)
Letters are appended singly or in pairs, as follows:
B (Belt Drive), C (Classic or Custom), D (Dyna Glide), DG (Disk Glide), E (Electric start), F (Fat Boy (1990-present) or Foot-shift (1972 and prior)), H (High compression), L (Hydra Glide forks), LR (Low Rider), P (Police), R (Race or Rubber-mount), S (Sport or Springer), SB (Single belt final drive), ST (Softail), T (Touring), WG (Wide Glide), I (Fuel injection), SE (Screamin’ Eagle), U (Ultra)
Custom Vehicle Operations models can also have a number (2,3,4) added.
Note that these conventions for model designations are broken regularly by the company.

[edit] Current model designations
Sportster With the exception of the street-going XR1000 of the 1980s, all Sportsters made for street use have the prefix XL in their model designation. For the Sporster Evolution engines used since the mid 1980s, there have been two sizes of Sportster Evolution engine. Motorcycles with the smaller engine are designated XL883, while those with the larger engine were initially designated XL1100. When the size of the larger engine was increased from 1,100 cc to 1,200 cc, the designation was changed from XL1100 to XL1200. Subsequent letters in the designation refer to model variations within the sportster range, eg. the XL883C refers to an 883 cc Sportster with cruiser or custom styling, while the XL1200S designates the now-discontinued 1200 Sportster Sport.
Dyna models utilize the big-twin engine (F), small-diameter telescopic forks similar to those used on the Sportster (X), and the Dyna chassis (D). Therefore, all Dyna models have designations that begin with FXD, eg. FXDWG (Wide Glide) and FXDL (Low Rider).
Softail Softail models utilize the big-twin engine (F) and the Softail chassis (ST).
Softail models that use small-diameter telescopic forks similar to those used on the Sportster (X) have designations that begin with FXST, eg. FXSTB (Night Train) and FXSTD (Deuce).
Softail models that use large-diameter telescopic forks similar to those used on the touring bikes (L) have designations beginning with FLST, e.g. FLSTF (Fat Boy) and FLSTC (Heritage Softail Classic).
Softail models that use Springer forks with a 21-inch wheel have designations that begin with FXSTS eg. FXSTS (Springer Softail) and FXSTSB (Bad Boy).
Softail models that use Springer forks with a 16-inch wheel have designations that begin with FLSTS eg.FLSTSC (Springer Classic)
Touring models use Big-Twin engines and large-diameter telescopic forks. All Touring designations begin with the letters FL, eg. FLHR (Road King) and FLTR (Road Glide)
VRSC or Revolution designations all begin with the letters VRSC.

[edit] Model families
Modern Harley-branded motorcycles fall into one of five model families: Touring, Softail, Dyna, Sportster and VRSC. Model families are distinguished by the frame, engine, suspension, and other characteristics.

[edit] Touring

Hamburg Police Electra Glide.
See also: Harley-Davidson FL
The touring family, also known as "dressers", includes three Road King models, and five Glide models offered in various trim. The Road Kings have a "retro cruiser" appearance and most models are equipped with a large clear windshield. Road Kings are reminiscent of big-twin models from the 1940s and '50s. Glides can be identified by their full front fairings. Most Glides sport a unique fairing referred to as the "Batwing" due to its unmistakable shape. The Road Glide has a different front end, referred to as the "Sharknose". The Sharknose includes a unique, dual front headlight. Touring models are distinguishable by their large luggage, rear coil-over air suspension and are the only models to offer full fairings with Radios/CBs. All touring models use the same frame, first introduced with a Shovelhead motor in 1980, and carried forward with only modest upgrades to this day. The frame is distinguished by the location of the steering head in front of the forks and was the first H-D frame to rubber mount the drivetrain to isolate the rider from the vibration of the big V-twin. Although all touring models weigh in excess of 800 lbs., they are remarkably easy to handle at low speeds and high, and give the most comfortable and relaxing ride of any Harley. The frame was modified for the 1994 model year when the oil tank went under the transmission and the battery was moved inboard from under the right saddlebag to under the seat. In 1997, the frame was again modified to allow for a larger battery under the seat and to lower seat height.

[edit] Softail

2002 Softail Heritage Classic.

2005 Dyna Super Glide Custom.

2002 Sportster 883 Custom
Main article: Softail
These big-twin motorcycles capitalize on Harley's strong value on tradition. With the rear-wheel suspension invisible on the bottom of the frame, they are visibly similar to the "hardtail" choppers popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as from their own earlier history. In keeping with that tradition, Harley offers Softail models with "springer" front ends and "heritage" styling that incorporate design cues from throughout their history.

[edit] Dyna
Main article: Harley-Davidson Super Glide
Dyna motorcycles feature big-twin engines and traditional styling. They can be distinguished from the Softail by the traditional coil-over suspension that connects the swingarm to the frame, and from the Sportster by their larger engines. On these models, the transmission also houses the engine's oil reservoir.
In 2007, Harley-Davidson released a line-up of five Dyna models: Super Glide, Super Glide Custom, Street Bob, Low Rider, and Wide Glide.

[edit] Sportster
Main article: Harley-Davidson Sportster
Introduced in 1957, the Sportster is the longest-running model family in the Harley-Davidson lineup. They were conceived as racing motorcycles, and were popular on dirt and flat-track race courses through the 1960s and '70s. Smaller and lighter than the other Harley models, contemporary Sportsters make use of 883 or 1,200 cc Evolution engines and, though often modified, remain similar in appearance to their racing ancestors.
Up until the 2003 model year, the engine on the Sportster was rigidly mounted to the frame. The 2004 Sportster had a new frame accommodating a rubber-mounted engine. Although this made the bike heavier and reduced the available lean angle, it reduced the amount of vibration transmitted to the frame and the rider.[1]
In 2007, Harley Davidson celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Sportster and produced a collectors' edition called the XL50 1200 Custom, of which only 2000 were made for sale world wide. Each motorcycle is individually numbered and the colors came in two versions (Mirage Pearl Orange and Vivid Black). Also introduced on the 2007 model year was fuel injection (or EFI as it's also called) a first in the Sportster family. Used for the past couple years on other Harley Davidson models, the EFI was seen by some as blasphemy and a godsend by others. Also introduced midway through the 2007 model year was a new Sportster, the XL1200N (Nightster). Compared to the other models in the XL line up, the 1200N sits lower and is blacked out with very little chrome. A call back the old bobbers, the 1200N has a bobbed front and rear fender and a sidemount licence plate along with a wide assorment of blacked out parts to give it that dark look.

[edit] VRSC

V-Rod in a gravel driveway.
Introduced in 2001, the VRSC family bears little resemblance to Harley's more traditional lineup. Competing against Japanese and American musclebikes and seeking to expand it's market appeal, the "V-Rod" makes use of an engine developed jointly with Porsche that, for the first time in Harley history, incorporates fuel injection, overhead cams, and liquid cooling. The V-Rod is visually distinctive, easily identified by the 60-degree V-Twin engine, the radiator and the hydroformed frame members that support the round-topped air cleaner cover. Based on the VR-1000 racing motorcycle, it continues to be a platform around which Harley-Davidson builds drag-racing competition machines. The V-Rod has gathered an enthusiastic following in the U.S., Europe and Australia, and an annual Rally at the Kansas City production facility has been organized by Max Millender and the members of a 16,000 strong internet discussion forum http://www.1130cc.com/. Bill Davidson has presented Mr Millender with a signed airbox cover to recognize the contribution the forum has made to the VRSC platform which contines to evolve with models like the Night Rod Special, or VRSCDX.

[edit] History

[edit] The beginning
The company considers 1903 to be its year of founding, though the Harley-Davidson enterprise could be considered to have started in 1901 when William S. Harley, age 21, drew up plans for a small engine that displaced 7.07 cubic inches (116 cc) and had four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame.
Over the next two years Harley and his boyhood friend Arthur Davidson labored on their motor-bicycle using the northside machine shop of their friend Henry Melk. It was finished in 1903 with the help of Arthur's brother, Walter Davidson. Upon completion the boys found their power-cycle unable to conquer Milwaukee's modest hills without pedal assistance. Will Harley and the Davidsons quickly wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment.
Work was immediately begun on a new and improved machine. This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches (405 cc) with 9-3/4 inch flywheels weighing 28 pounds. The machine's advanced loop-frame was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle. They also got help with their new engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude. Elder brother William A. Davidson also lent a hand.
The prototype of the new improved loop-frame model was assembled in a 10 by 15-foot (3 by 5 meter) shed in the Davidson family backyard. The machine was functional by 8 September 1904 when it was entered in a Milwaukee motorcycle race, the first known appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.
In January 1905 small advertisements were placed in the "Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal" that offered bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a very limited basis. In 1905 no more than a dozen machines were built in the backyard shed. (Some years later the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins. Unfortunately, the first shed was accidentally destroyed by contractors in the early 1970s during a clean-up of the factory yard.)
In 1906 Harley and the Davidsons built their first factory on Chestnut Street (later Juneau Avenue). This location remains the Motor Company's corporate headquarters today. The first Juneau Avenue plant was a modest 40 by 60-foot single-story wooden structure. That year around 50 motorcycles were produced.

1907 model.
In 1907 William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering. That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and later with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow ("cream") brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907. That September a milestone was reached when the fledgling company was officially incorporated. They also began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a tradition that continues today.
Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch (440 cc) engines but as early as February of 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised, very few dual cylinder V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910. These first V-Twins displaced 53.68 cubic inches (880 cc) and produced about 7 horsepower (5 kW). This gave about double the hill-climbing power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph (97 km/h). Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909.
The success of Harley-Davidson (along with Indian's success) had attracted many imitators. By 1911 some 150 makes of motorcycles had already been built in the United States -- although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911 an improved V-Twin model with mechanically operated intake valves was introduced. (Earlier V-Twins had used "automatic" intake valves that opened by engine vacuum). Displacing 49.48 cubic inches (810 cc), the 1911 V-Twin was actually smaller than earlier twins, but gave better performance. After 1913 the majority of bikes produced by Harley-Davidson would be V-Twin models.
By 1913 the yellow brick factory had been demolished and on the site a new 5-story structure of reinforced concrete and red brick had been built. Begun in 1910, the red brick factory with its many additions would take up two blocks along Juneau Avenue and around the corner on 38th Street. Despite the competition, Harley-Davidson was already pulling ahead of Indian and would dominate motorcycle racing after 1914. Production that year swelled to 16,284 machines.

Ralph Hepburn races his Harley in this 1919 photo.

[edit] World War I
In 1917, the United States was drawn into World War I and the military demanded motorcycles for the war effort. Harleys had already been used by the military in border skirmishes with Pancho Villa but World War I was the first time the motorcycle had been adopted for combat service. Harley-Davidson provided over 20,000 machines to the military forces during World War I.

[edit] The 1920s
By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Their motorcycles were sold by dealers in 67 countries. Production was 28,189 machines.
In 1921, a milestone was reached in motorcycle racing. A Harley-Davidson machine was the very first to win a race at an average speed of over 100 mph (160 km/h).
During the 1920s, several improvements were put in place, such as a new 74 cubic inch (1.2 L) V-Twin, introduced in 1922, and the gas tank still seen today, called a "Teardrop" tank, in 1925. A front brake was added in 1928.
In the late summer of 1929, Harley-Davidson introduced its 45 cubic inch flathead V-Twin model to compete with the Indian Model 101 Scout and the Excelsior Super X.[2]

[edit] The Depression

Harley-Davidson WL
The Great Depression began a few months after the introduction of their 45 cubic inch model. Harley-Davidson's sales plummeted from 21,000 in 1929 to less than 4,000 in 1933. In order to survive, the company manufactured industrial powerplants based on their motorcycle engines. They also designed and built a three-wheeled delivery vehicle called the Servi-Car, which remained in production until 1973.[2]
An 80 cubic inch flathead engine was added to the line in 1935, by which time the single cylinder motorcycles had been discontinued.[3]
By 1937, all the flathead engines were equipped with the dry-sump oil recirculation system that had been introduced with the 61E and 61EL "Knucklehead" OHV models. This caused the 74 cubic inch V and VL models to be renamed U and UL, the 80 cubic inch VH and VLH to be renamed UL and ULH, and the 45 cubic inch RL to be renamed WL.[4]
In 1941, the 74 cubic inch "Knucklehead" was introduced as the F and the FL, replacing the 80 cubic inch flathead UH and ULH models.

[edit] World War II

Harley copied the BMW R71 to produce its XA model.
One of only two American cycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, Harley-Davidson again produced large numbers of motorcycles for the US Army in World War II and resumed civilian production afterwards, producing a range of large V-twin motorcycles that were successful both on racetracks and for private buyers.
Harley Davidson, on the eve World War II, was already supplying the Army with a military-specific version of its 45" WLD line, called the WLA. (The A in this case stood for "Army".) Upon the outbreak of war, the company, along with other manufacturing enterprises, shifted to war work. Over 90,000 military motorcycles, mostly WLAs and WLCs (the Canadian version) would be produced, many to be provided to allies.[5] Shipments to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease program numbered at least 30,000. The WLAs produced during all years of war production would, unusually, have 1942 serial numbers. Production of the WLA stopped at the end of the war, though it would resume production from 1949 to 1952 due to the Korean War.
The U.S. Army also asked Harley-Davidson to produce a new motorcycle with many of the features of BMW's side-valve and shaft-driven R71. Harley largely copied the BMW engine and drive train and produced the shaft-driven 750cc 1942 Harley-Davidson XA. Due to the superior cooling of an opposed twin, Harley's XA cylinder heads ran 100° cooler than its V-twins'.[6] The XA never entered full production: the motorcycle by that time had been eclipsed by the Jeep as the Army's general purpose vehicle, and the WLA—already in production—was sufficient for its limited police, escort, and courier roles. Only 1,000 were made and the XA never went into full production. It remains the only shaft-driven Harley Davidson ever made.
As part of war reparations, Harley-Davidson acquired the design of a small German motorcycle, the DKW RT125 which they adapted and marketed as the "Hummer" from 1948 to 1966 (in the UK, BSA took the same design as the foundation of their BSA Bantam).

[edit] Tarnished reputation

AMF H-D Electra Glide
In 1952, following their application to the US Tariff Commission for a 40% tax on imported motorcycles, Harley-Davidson was charged with restrictive practices.[7] Hollywood also damaged Harley's image with outlaw biker gang films produced from the 1950s and on up into the 1970s by the bushel following the 1947 Hollister, CA ordeal on July 4th. "Harley-Davidson" for a long time was synonymous with "Hells Angels" and troublemakers in general who "beat up old ladies with chains".
In 1969, American Machinery and Foundry (AMF) bought the company, streamlined production, and slashed the workforce. This tactic resulted in a labor strike and a lower quality of bikes. The company also ceased to be an innovator in the motorcycle industry, with a design that remained basically unchanged for many years. The bikes were expensive and inferior in performance, handling, and quality to Japanese motorcycles. Sales declined, quality plummeted, and the company almost went bankrupt. The venerable name of "Harley-Davidson" was mocked as "Hardly Ableson", and the nickname "Hog" became pejorative.

[edit] Leadership regained

1998 Harley-Davidson FXSTC
In 1981, AMF sold the company to a group of thirteen investors led by Vaughn Beals and Willie G. Davidson for $80 million.[8] Inventory was strictly controlled using the Just In Time system.
Rather than trying to match the Japanese, this new management deliberately exploited the "retro" appeal of the machines, building motorcycles that deliberately adopted the look and feel of their earlier machines and the subsequent customizations of owners of that era. Many components such as brakes, forks, shocks, carburetors, electrics and wheels were outsourced from foreign manufacturers and quality increased, technical improvements were made, and buyers slowly returned. To remain profitable Harley continues to increase the amount of overseas made parts it uses, while being careful not to harm its valuable "American Made" image.
The "Sturgis" model, boasting a dual belt-drive, was introduced. By 1990, with the introduction of the "Fat Boy", Harley once again became the sales leader in the heavyweight (over 750 cc) market. There was a controversy that the Fat Boy model was allegedly inspired by the name of the bombs (Fat Man and Little Boy) that were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The company vehemently denies this and claims it is coincidence.

Ford F-150 crew cabHarley Davidson edition
1999 saw the replacement of the FXR frame with the Dyna, though it was revived briefly in 1999 and 2000 for special limited editions.
In 1999, Ford Motor Company added a Harley-Davidson edition to the Ford F-Series F-150 line, complete with the Harley-Davidson logo. This truck was an extended-cab for model year 1999. In 2000, Ford changed the truck to a crew cab and in 2002 added a super-charged engine (5.4L) which continued until 2003. In 2004, the Ford/Harley was changed to a Super-Duty, which continues through 2006. Ford again produced a Harley-Davidson Edition F-150 for their 2006 model-year, as well.
Building started on $75 million 130,000 square-foot (12,000 m2) Harley-Davidson Museum in the Menomonee River Valley on June 1, 2006. It is expected to open in 2008 and will house the company's vast collection of historic motorcycles and corporate archives, along with a restaurant, café and meeting space.[9]

[edit] Claims of stock price manipulation
During its period of peak demand, during the late 1990s and early 2000s, Harley-Davidson embarked on a program of expanding the number of dealerships throughout the country. At the same time, its current dealers typically had waiting lists that extended up to a year for some of the most popular models. Harley-Davidson, like the auto manufacturers, records a sale not when a consumer buys their product, but rather when it is delivered to a dealer. Therefore, it is possible for the manufacturer to inflate sales numbers by requiring dealers to accept more inventory than desired in a practice called channel stuffing. When demand softened following the unique 2003 model year, this news lead to a dramatic decline in the stock price. In April 2004 alone, the price of HOG shares dropped from over $60 to under $40. Immediately prior to this decline, retiring CEO Jeffrey Bleustein profited $42 million on the exercise of employee stock options.[10] Harley-Davidson was named as a defendant in numerous class action suits filed by investors who claimed they were intentionally defrauded by Harley-Davidson's management and directors.[11] By January 2007, the price of Harley-Davidson shares reached $70.

[edit] 2007 workers' strike
On February 2, 2007, upon the expiration of their union contract, about 2,700 employees at Harley-Davidson Inc.'s largest manufacturing plant in York, PA went on strike after failing to agree on wages and health benefits.[12][13] During the pendency of the strike, the company refused to pay for any portion of the striking employees' health care.[14]
The day before the strike, after the union voted against the proposed contract and to authorize the strike, the company shut down all production at the plant. The York facility employs more than 3,200 workers, both union and non-union.[15]
Harley-Davidson announced on February 16, 2007, that it had reached a labor agreement with union workers at its largest manufacturing plant, a breakthrough in the two-week-old strike.[16] The strike disrupted Harley-Davidson’s national production and had ripple effects as far away as Wisconsin, where 440 employees were laid off, and many Harley suppliers also laid off workers because of the strike.[17]

[edit] Events
In 2003, Harley-Davidson Company celebrated its 100th birthday. On Labor Day weekend the city of Milwaukee hosted the largest Harley-Davidson event, and possibly the largest motorcycle event, in history.
Other motorcycle events:
Sturgis Motorcycle Rally - held at the beginning of August each year in Sturgis, South Dakota, 514,951 attended in 2004.
Laconia Motorcycle Week - held since the first Loudon classic race started 1923. Located in Laconia, New Hampshire.
Daytona Beach Bike Week - held since 1937 in Daytona Beach, Florida.
Republic of Texas Biker Rally - a popular event in Austin, Texas held every June.
Myrtle Beach Bike Week - a Spring and Fall rally in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
Rolling Thunder - an annual rally in Washington, D.C. to raise awareness of veteran issues (specifically POW/MIA soldiers).
Bikes Blues and BBQ[18] - held the last weekend of September in Fayetteville, Arkansas, an estimated 350,000 attended in 2006.
European Bike Week, Faaker See, Austria
Hamburg Harley Days, Hamburg, Germany
Thunder Beach Bike week is held the first week in May. It is held in Panama City Beach, FL. There is also a fall rally.
In a landmark deal reached during discussions between the US Trade Representative, Ms Susan Schwab and the Minister for Commerce and Industry of India, Mr Kamal Nath on April 12th,2007 at New Delhi, Harley Davidson motorcycles will be allowed access to the Indian market in exchange for the export of Indian Mangoes. India has relaxed the strict emission norms to allow Harley Davidson to be imported.[citation needed]

[edit] Origin of Hog nickname
Beginning in 1920 a team of farm boys down South that would become known as the "hog boys" consistently won races. The group had a hog, or pig as their mascot. Following a win, they would put the pig (a real one) on the back of their Harley and take a victory lap.[19] In 1983, an organization was formed, taking advantage of the long-standing nickname by turning "hog" into the acronym H.O.G., for Harley Owners Group. Many Harley-Davidson enthusiasts capitalize the word to make "Hog" and consider this term the sole property of H-D.
Harley-Davidson attempted to trademark "hog," but in 1999 ultimately lost the case, with the appellate panel ruling that "hog" had become a generic term for large motorcycles, and is therefore unprotectable as a trademark.[20]
On August 15, 2006, Harley Davidson Inc. had its NYSE ticker symbol changed from HDI to HOG.

[edit] The Harley-Davidson Riders Club of Gt Britain & H.O.G.

Harley-Davidson 2004 Heritage
The Harley-Davidson Riders Club of Gt Britain (est 1949) was the first British riders club (as opposed to motorcycle club and organised national rallies and ride-outs from the outset. The 1982 rally began a popular run of events, probably due to the good fortune of having William G. Davidson attending his first rally outside the USA, in Great Britain. He is thought to have been more than curious to discover how the secret "Evolution Motor" had found its world exclusive on the cover of the spring edition of the HDRCGB magazine, the "Harleyquin", but having a forgiving nature, Willie G. returned in 1984, along with Vaughn Beals and Len Thomson to officially show off the Evolution engine by bringing a test ride fleet to the second Brighton Super Rally. The demonstration rides were the first at any European Rally, and it was following Willie G's visit to this event that HOG came into being in the USA, so perhaps a seed had been sown.
Harley-Davidson established the Harley Owners Group (H.O.G.) in 1983 in response to a growing desire by a new breed of Harley riders for an organized way to share their passion and show their pride. By 1985, 49 local chapters existed, with a membership of 60,000.
Rapid growth continued into the 1990s, and in 1991 H.O.G. officially went international, with the first official European H.O.G. Rally in Cheltenham, England. Worldwide membership numbered 151,600, with 685 local chapters.
As the 90s continued, H.O.G. spread into Asia, including new chapters in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. By 1999, worldwide membership had reached half a million, and the number of local chapters totaled 1,157. Today, more than one million members make H.O.G. the largest factory-sponsored motorcycle organization in the world.
H.O.G. benefits include organized group rides, exclusive products and product discounts, insurance premium discounts, and the Hog Tales newsletter.
Famous owners of Harley-Davidsons include singer Elvis Presley, comedian Jay Leno and professional wrestler The Undertaker. Here is a link to other famous Harley Davidson riders -.[21]

[edit] Harley-Davidson in popular culture

"Captain America" replica bike from the film Easy Rider
The Norwegian hard rock band TNT has a song called "Harley Davidson" specifically about the motorcycle. The band inserts the distinctive sound of a Harley's motor to the musical score. Their current drummer, Morten "Diesel" Dahl, was a member of the Hells Angels.
Harley-Davidson motorcycles has long been associated with the sub-cultures of the:
Outlaw biker
Motorcycle club
Motorcycle gang

[edit] See also
Harley-Davidson Museum

[edit] References
^ Motorcycle Cruiser First Ride: 2004 Harley-Davidson Sportster Motorcycles
^ a b Mitchel, D. "Harley-Davidson Chronicle - An American Original" p. 68-69 Publications International Limited, 1997 ISBN 0-7853-2514-X
^ Mitchel, D. "Harley-Davidson Chronicle - An American Original" p. 92 Publications International Limited, 1997 ISBN 0-7853-2514-X
^ Mitchel, D. "Harley-Davidson Chronicle - An American Original" p. 94-95 Publications International Limited, 1997 ISBN 0-7853-2514-X
^ Smithsonian magazine, August 2003, pg. 34 - "Wild Thing", Robert F. Howe
^ http://www.motorcyclemuseum.org/classics/bike.asp?id=71
^ http://www.ianchadwick.com/motorcycles/triumph/time03.html
^ Smithsonian magazine, August 2003, pg. 36 - "Wild Thing", Robert F. Howe
^ The Business Journal (Milwaukee) - Harley-Davidson kick-starts $75M museum project
^ http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/793952/000122520804000684/xslF345X02/doc4.xml
^ http://www.glancylaw.com/amazing_case.php?caseid=125
^ "2,700 union workers strike Harley-Davidson," NewsDaily: Business (United Press International, Feb. 2, 2007).[1]
^ "Strike shuts down Harley-Davidson plant, Company suspends production of motorcycles amid contract dispute," U.S. Business, MSNBC.com (Associated Press, Feb. 2, 2007)[2]
^ "Striking Harley workers take hits in the pocketbook," The York Dispatch (Feb. 12, 2007).[3]
^ "Harley closes big plant on strike threat," NewsDaily: Business (United Press International, Feb. 1, 2007).[4]
^ "Deal ends Harley-Davidson strike," The Wall Street Journal (2007 The Associated Press)[5].
^ "Tentative deal in Harley-Davidson strike - 2,800 workers out since Feb. 2; rank-and-file still must vote on deal," Breaking News, MSNBC.com (Associated Press, Feb. 16, 2007)[6].
^ http://www.bikesbluesandbbq.org/
^ Harley-Davidson - History
^ [http://www.ostrolenk.com/publications/00448768.htm "Hog" Generic for Large Motorcycles]
^ http://www.bikermatchmaking.com/harley_info/famous-harley-riders.htm
Wagner, Herbert, 2003. At the Creation: Myth, Reality, and the Origin of the Harley-Davidson Motorcycle, 1901-1909 (Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 228 pp.)
Bach, Sharon and Ken Ostermann, eds. 1993. The Legend Begins: Harley-Davidson Motorcycles, 1903-1969 (Harley-Davidson, Inc., 227 pp.)
Tegan, Adam and Aguayo, Andy - Orange County, NY's Harley Davidson experts.